Vacuum pumps are used for more than just for collecting sewage and slurry. They are more commonly used than you think. They are used in many industries for commercial purposes like automobiles, industrial processes, sewage systems and pharmaceuticals among others.
How Does A Vacuum Pump Work?
A vacuum pump eliminates the air in an enclosed space through suction. It gradually reduces the density of air in a restricted space where a vacuum is created. Following are the various types of vacuum pumps:
Positive Displacement Pump
This works with a mechanism that continuously expands in an enclosed area, space or cavity to allow the gases to flow to an external chamber. Positive displacement pumps create low vacuums.
They make fluids move by trapping a fixed amount and displacing the trapped materials into the discharge pipe. Examples of positive displacement pumps are:
- Gear pumps
- Screw pumps
- Rotary piston pumps
- Water ring pumps, etc.
Momentum Transfer Pump
These are momentum pumps that work with high-speed fluids for fast-moving gas particles. These pumps are mainly used to achieve high vacuums and work in conjunction with different displacement pumps.
They are also called molecular pumps and have two classifications:
- Diffusion pump – uses the vapour of a boiling fluid to capture air molecules. The fluid is then moved to another location and cooled.
- Turbomolecular pump – this is similar to turbopump. It is a multi-stage axial-flow turbine where high-speed rotating blades provide compression by increasing the gas movement in the pumping direction.
This type of vacuum pump uses the hybrid theory of a centrifugal and turbopump. This is also called a turbine. It uses blowers to remove the air out of an enclosed space to create a vacuum.
It is suitable for small flow rates and high discharge pressure. They are ideal for pumping pure liquids and large gas proportions. It is not suitable for polluted liquids and multiphase applications with low volume flow.
Entrapment pumps use cold temperature to compress gases into a hard state. This includes cryopumps, getters, and ion pumps.
It responds with gases and produces a hard residue similar to an ion pump which utilises tough electrical fields to push the ions as well as ionise gases into a hard substrate.
Basic Operating Principle Of An Industrial Pump
The basic operating principle of an industrial vacuum pump is always the same no matter what type of technology is used. Vacuum pumps remove air molecules and other gases from the vacuum chamber.
Application of Vacuum Pumps
- Composite mouldings
- Flight instruments
- Production of vacuum tubes and electric lamps
- Semiconductor processing
- Print presses
- Glass and stone cutting
- Medical applications
- Dairy equipment (milking machines)
- Trash compactors
- Air conditioning services
- Sewage systems
- Rescue operations
Common Uses Of Vacuum Pumps
For the common household and small businesses, the following situations need the aid of vacuum pumps:
- Non-Destructive Digging
- Vacuum Loading
- Liquid Waste Removal
- Drain Cleaning
- Suction Truck services
Examples of the work done under these services are:
- Asset Exposure, Trenching, Service Proving
- Post Hole or Pier Hole Digging
- Sign Post and Power Poles Digging
- Optic Fibre Exposure
- Tree Removal and Root Barrier Installation
- Excavating/Potholing for Gas, Power, Water and Telecommunications
- Deep Pier/Bore Hole Cleaning
- Safety Barrier Installation
- Limited Access Excavation
- Construction Site Water
- Excavation for Sewer and Water Repair